There is growing evidence that RCV can reduce the influence of money in campaigns. In the 2013 Minneapolis mayoral race, Mayor Betsy Hodges was outspent 3 to 1 by her leading opponent. Similar disparities in campaign spending by candidates and their PACs have been seen in other races elsewhere in the United States. Why? Because most of the big money raised directly by campaigns, PACs, or Independent Expenditures is used for negative TV ads or mailings. These are not only unhelpful in an RCV campaign, but can actually backfire. This was seen in the Ward 2 council race in St. Paul in 2015, in which Independent Expenditure organizations sent a very negative mailer against the winning candidate. Attack tactics like this may work under the traditional system, but are not successful under RCV.